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The Music Industry Today

On 20th November, UK Music, the campaigning and lobbying group, which represents every part of the UK Recorded and Live Music Industry, launched it’s Music by Num8ers 2019 report. Each year, the UK Music report shines a light on the value and contributions made by the music industry.

This year the report highlights the £5.2 billion contribution to the UK Economy that the music industry makes, with 190,935 full time jobs being sustained by the industry, up from 145,815 the previous year.

The music industry covers various sectors, including music creation, the live sector and the recorded sector (see table for breakdown). The Music Creators sector generates £2.5 billion in Gross Value Added (GVA) which is almost half the total industry GVA. The Live sector made a GVA contribution of £1.1 billion in 2018, up from £990m the previous year. In terms of export, the Recorded sector contributed £478 million and Publishing £618 million to the total export revenue of £2.7 billion.

The report uses the terms Sectors (or thematic groups as shown above) and Sub-Sectors (or elements of the core) to define the various parts of the music industry. The sub-sectors all contribute to the commercial assets of the UK Music Industry:

UK Music highlight the two relationships to the commercial assets – “economic activities that create these commercial assets. (An example is the creative process of composing, performing or recording music.)….[and]  economic activities whose primary focus is upon the steps necessary to bring these assets to a position where they are able to be distributed and transacted with consumers and businesses in one way or another.”

The report stresses that the inter-dependency between the sectors is “what gives the UK music industry its diversity and economic success, fostering a unique eco-system.”

Music Creators

Alongside celebrating the successes of the industry, the report also puts a spotlight on some of the challenges. For example, the high GVA for Music Creators, does not adequately show the financial struggles of many music creators. Although those at the highest levels, do earn high income from their work, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) show that musicians earned an average income of £23,059 in 2018 – well below the national average of £29,832.

In 2018, a total of 139,352 people were employed in the Music Creators sector, and employment growth continues to be robust as more creators move from part-time to full-time work. Research by the DCMS, shows that 72% of those working in music, performing and visual arts are self-employed compared to just 15% of the UK working population as a whole (ONS). The Music Producers Guild found that 94% of its membership is self-employed, according to their 2019 survey.

Freelance work can be challenging and many music creators find it hard to maintain a full-time career. This has led to a workforce where many people balance multiple roles within the industry. A shift in the industry in recent years, which is highlighted in this research. is the move to more artists self-releasing, self-managing and self-publishing. Although there can be benefits to this way of working, it can also put pressure on these individuals and leave them at risk when developing their careers.

Music Retail

Music Retail covers retail and manufacture of musical instruments, plus digital and physical retail. The report highlights that although music instrument sales are an area that is often overlooked, it contributes £402m total GVA. 

In terms of “physical music”, vinyl continues it’s growth up 1.5% on the previous year. Initiatives such as Record Store Day and National Album Day have helped this growth, particularly for small independent shops.

Streaming continues to grow, the BPI report that there was a growth of 33% from the previous year – a total of over 90 billion streams in 2018. One challenge for the sector is to ensure that music creators are fairly financially compensated for their work.

Recorded Music

This sector includes a wide range of areas including record labels, music distributors, recorded rights holders, physical manufacturers and for the first-time in UK Music’s research, recording studios. The sector had a 5% rise of GVA, contributing £568 million in GVA to the UK economy, and a rise of 8% in exports -£478 million. The BPI reports that Label revenues alone, increased by 3% – a third consecutive growth in label revenues.

The report highlights the significant investment and risk undertaken by the record labels which helps contribute to the value created by the sector as a whole. While the inclusion of studios in the data for the first time has helped raised the GVA, the research demonstrated that many studios are facing pressures from increasing rent and business rates leading to businesses having to diversify by renting office space, promoting events and moving into educational activities.

Music representatives

The Music Representatives’ sector includes a wide range of personnel and skills including music managers, music trade bodies, collective management organisations (CMOs) and for the first time in UK Music’s research, lawyers and accountants who represent music organisations or music creators are also included.  

This sector added £148 million to the music industry’s GVA in 2018, while exports remained strong at £387 million. In terms of export revenue, contributions from collective management organisations (CMOs), such as PRS For Music and PPL, were a large part of the total export revenue.  CMOs deal with the management of copyright and the collection of revenue for their members who include musicians and performers. 

The report highlights the changing role of music managers who are working with Artists earlier in their careers and investing their own money in Artists development: 74% of managers surveyed by the Music Managers Forum have invested their own money to support the careers of their current clients, while 40% have received no outside investment for their artist.

Music Publishing

Music publishers and publishing rights holders work on behalf of songwriters and composers, to collect revenue when their work is used commercially, securing commissions and sync deals: when work is licensed for use in film, advertising and games. The sector contributed £459 million in GVA to the UK economy and £618 million in exports .The Music Publishing sector currently maintains around 1,363 jobs. Over the past five years, there have been large changes to the sector with several consolidations within the publishing world and many businesses have merged to form larger organisations, however the number of employees have continued to increase reflecting the industry’s expansion.

Live Music

As highlighted, the live sector is particularly vibrant, it covers festival organisers, promoters and agents, production services, and ticketing agents, grassroots music venues, concert venues and arenas (the proportion of their activities which involve live music.) As a key player in the industry, Glastonbury has a large impact on the live sector, however even though 2018 was a fallow year for Festival, there was a surge in festival ticket sales across the country leading to a record high of £1.1 billion GVA, which is a 10% overall rise on 2017. UK Music’s research shows a total of 4.9 million people attended festivals in 2018 compared to 2.7 million in 2012.

In terms of venues, three of the top 13 arenas in the world – The SSE Hydro in Glasgow, the Manchester Arena and the 02 Arena – are in the UK, according to Pollstar. It is important to remember that grassroots plays a vital part in the industry’s eco-system, acting as an incubator for emerging talent, an area that is facing challenges. A total of 30,529 people were employed in the live music sector in 2018, a rise of 7% on 2017.

Music Tourism is a key part of the Live Sector this includes those travelling from overseas, as well as domestic tourists, who live in the UK but are not local to the events they are attending.

Challenges identified

The report has highlighted several challenges facing the music industry such as the impact of business rates on grassroots development, copyright protection, shared parental leave for the self-employed, international trade support, talent pipeline including students taking GCSE and A level music, touring post-Brexit and fiscal incentives. UK Music continue to support the music industry and make the case for further government support.

All images in this blog are from the original report, the full version of which can be found here.

The State of the UK Music Industry in 2017

In October, we looked at options for study at Higher Education for those interested in studying music. This month, we look at the Music Industry in the UK thanks to UK Music and their Measuring Music 2017 and Wish You Were Here 2017 reports.

Each year, UK Music produce a report giving an overview of the UK Music Industry, exploring factors such as the value of the Music Industry and where revenues are being generated. It’s an exciting time for the UK Music Industry with a 6% growth in Total Gross Value Added (GVA) contribution in 2016, a total of £4.4 billion. This breaks down as £2bn from musicians, composers, songwriters and lyricists, £1bn from live music (including festival organisers, ticketing agencies and venues), £640m from recorded music (including music labels and online music distribution), £474m from music publishing, £121m from music producers, recording studios and staff and £96m from music representatives (including collection societies, music managers and trade bodies).

Alongside the contribution to the UK, £2.5 billion was made in export revenue in 2016, with £946m generated by musicians, composers, songwriters and lyricists.

For those thinking of entering the Music Industry, the report shows good news. Employment was up 19% in the sector in 2016 with 142,208 people employed within the UK Music Industry (up from 119,020 in 2015). This includes 89,800 musicians, composers, songwriters and lyricists from big name artists to lesser known musicians. Other large areas of employment include 28,538 people working in live music, 11,300 music producers, recording studios and staff and 9,100 working in recorded music. This really highlights the range of career opportunities across the sector.

The Live Music sector is a very important growth area for the UK Music Industry with a total audience of 30.9 million attending live music events in 2016, up 12% from 2015. This includes 27 million attending concerts and 3.9 million attending festivals in 2016. Of the attendees, 12.5 million people were music tourists in 2016, of these 823,000 were from overseas. The popularity of live music and music tourism in the UK means that 47,445 people are employed full time in music tourism.

While we might think of major festivals being key to music tourism, small venues are also vitally important to the music economy in the UK. 6.2 million people attended events at smaller music venues in 2016 with 107,000 of these being overseas music tourists. Sadly, numbers attending events at smaller venues are declining with a 13% drop in total audience for smaller venues in London last year leading to a 16% drop in spend at smaller venues.

This challenge is being address by the Music Venues Trust – http://www.musicvenuetrust.com, a registered charity, which was formed in January 2014 to protect the UK live music network by securing the long-term future of iconic grassroots music venues such as Hull Adelphi, Exeter Cavern, Southampton Joiners, The 100 Club, Band on the Wall and Tunbridge Wells Forum. However, Beverley Whitrick, Strategic Director of the Music Venues Trust emphasised

For the first time in ten years, the number of GMVs operating in London stabilised; the capital finished the year with the same number of spaces for new and emerging talent as at the start of the year, halting a 15-year decline in the number of spaces. This picture of a more stable sector was reflected across the UK, with regions reporting small but significant increases in audiences in the grassroots and small music venue sector.

The Measuring Music report also explores how people are accessing music. Drawing on findings by AudienceNet’s June 2017 survey, the report highlights the different ways various generations are accessing music. For example, radio accounted for just a tenth of 16-19 year old listening time, while on-demand streaming accounted for 62% of their total listening time 2017. However, for over 65s, more than 65% of their listening is via Radio, with 4% utilising on-demand streaming.

The report also highlights the importance of online access to music, with 31% of people using YouTube to listen to music and only 16% using Spotify and 15% CD. YouTube, Spotify, Apple Music and the combination of Amazon Prime Music and Amazon Music Unlimited hold 87% of the streaming market, according to the AudienceNet survey.

When exploring how people access music online, there are again inter-generational differences, with 59% of 16 to 19-year-olds using for Spotify or Apple Music against 33% who used YouTube for on-demand music with just 34% of the over-45s listening to the two most popular subscription services (Spotify and Apple Music) compared to 39% who get their music from YouTube.

Key highlights for the UK Music Industry include 20 million cumulative track streams in week one for the release of Stormzy ‘s Gang Signs and Prayer. Stormzy is the first grime artist to reach number 1 in the UK Album Charts.

Music is a vital part of the UK’s Economy and it’s continued development is vital. The UK really are world-leaders when it comes to music – did you know, one in every eight albums sold worldwide is by a British artist?


The Music Workshop Company team is passionate about music and music education. If you have any questions for us, would like to pick our brains about a career in music or are interested in booking a workshop, contact us today!

65 Years of Pop Music Charts

This month marks the 65th Anniversary of the UK music charts. As teenagers, many of us would anxiously await the chart radio shows, hovering over the cassette recorder to capture our favourite songs. Today, the charts give a fascinating insight into the changes in the Music Industry since 1952, both in terms of musical styles and tastes, and in the way music is ‘consumed’.

The move from records -45s and albums- to cassette tapes and CDs through to downloads and streaming have impacted the way the charts are calculated. Over its history the UK Official Charts have developed and adapted to changing music demands. In fact, interest in the history of music production has brought many music fans full circle, with LPs and cassettes seeing a resurgence in popularity – a backlash against the culture of obsolescence and ‘mainstream’.

The ‘top of the pops’ charts all began with Percy Dickins, the publisher of the New Music Express (NME). Dickins wanted to find a way to persuade people to advertise in his magazine. He telephoned his contacts in music retail to find out what was the best selling record. The result of his basic survey was that Here In My Heart by Al Martino was the first No.1. Dickins’ first chart was published as a Top 12, even though it comprises 15 singles, because there were ties at Number 7, Number 8 and Number 11.

In 1954 the standard singles chart was extended to the Top Twenty with NME introducing a Top Thirty in April 1956. In response, Record Mirror launched the UK’s first Albums Chart with a Top 5 from on July 28 that year. The first Number 1 Album was Frank Sinatra’s Songs For Swingin’ Lovers.

1955 – Billy Haley & His Comets’ Rock Around the Clock becomes a hit for the first time, it enters the Top Twenty on five separate occasions – twice in 1955, plus in 1956, 1968 and 1974.

In 1957, the charts moved from print to broadcast as the BBC’s Light Programme host Alan Freeman started commenting on the Top Ten Charts published by the various music papers, Melody Maker, NME, Disc and Record Mirror. The following year an averaged Top Ten was introduced.

1957 – Elvis Presley scores his first Number 1 single with All Shook Up. He later sets the record for the most Number 1 singles – 22.

In 1960 the battle for pre-eminence for charts across the music print media was concluded with the UK trade magazine Record Retailer’s singles and album charts being recognised as the “official” charts. The Top Fifty singles and Top Twenty Albums were compiled by Record Retailer from a panel of 30 shops. In 1963, an independent auditor was brought in to compile the charts.

1963 – She Loves You becomes The Beatles’ first million-seller. To date, The Beatles have six titles in the all-time UK Million Sellers list- (She Loves You, I Want To Hold Your Hand, Can’t Buy Me Love, I Feel Fine, We Can Work It Out/Daytripper and Hey Jude.

In 1969 the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau (BMRB) to compile the UK charts on their behalf. These were the first industry-wide recognised charts, and were called the UK’s “official” charts for the first time. The charts were initially created from a panel of 250 record shops. The shops logged their sales by hand and submitted their totals by post. Over the years, the panel grew to 750 stores, with 250 used every week for the Tuesday singles chart and 450 for the Wednesday albums chart.

While the singles chart continued as a Top 50 rundown, the length of the albums moved a number of times, varying in length from 15 to 77, before stabilising as a Top 50 in January 1971. The lengths changed again in 1978, with the Official Singles Chart is extended from Top 50 to Top 75 in May and the Official Album Charts increasing from Top 60 to Top 75 in December.

1978 – Paul McCartney & Wings’ single Mull Of Kintyre became the first single to pass 2 million singles sales in the UK. It remains one of only four singles to sell 2 million copies – the others are Queen’s Bohemian Rhapsody, Band Aid’s Do They Know It’s Christmas and Elton John’s Candle In The Wind ’97.

In 1983 Gallup took over the compilation of the Official Singles Chart and Official Albums Chart. This change led to the end of hand-written diaries, motorcycle courier collection and manually-checked charts, implementing a new computerised system which involved collection of data via telephone and digital monitoring of sales to minimise hyping. The new system introduced Top 200 singles and albums charts every week (only the Top 100 is available publically at that point via Music Week). Cassette sales were also incorporated into the albums charts, while separate cassette albums and 12-inch singles charts were produced.

1984 – Band Aid’s Do They Know It’s Christmas sets new sales records, selling 600,000 in its first week, another 810,000 in its second week and becoming the first single to Top 3 million sales. 1991 – Bryan Adams’ (Everything I Do) I Do It For You has 16 consecutive weeks at Number 1, breaking the 1955 record set by Slim Whitman’s 11-week chart-topper Rose Marie. Everything I do is also the biggest selling cassette single of all time.

Major changes in how people accessed music led to changes in 2004 with the launch of the UK’s Official Download Chart following the launch of iTunes 3 months previously. In July 2005 downloads are counted toward the Official Singles Chart for the first time, initially only the week before the physical release is available. The Charts further adapt to the digital revolution in 2007 in January, when the chart rules were changed to fully embrace downloads, which meant artists could chart for the first time without requiring a physical release. In 2008 MTV began broadcasting the Official Singles Chart every week for the first time, as part of a new partnership that made it the TV home of the Official Charts. The Official UK Top 40 is broadcast several times a week, following a first broadcast on Monday afternoon.

2002 – Following success on TV’s Pop Idol, Will Young’s Anything Is Possible/Evergreen scores the biggest first day (403,000 copies) and first week (1.1m copies) sales for a non-charity record.

Changes to charts again took place in 2012, when in May, the UK’s first Official Streaming Chart was launched. This reflected the change to music consumption from owning music to accessing music and included from services including Spotify, Napster and We7. Further changes were made the following year when streaming was added to the Singles Chart. This was calculated as 100 streams being equal to 1 single/download sale. Contributors to this data included Spotify, Deezer, Napster, O2 Tracks and many others. In 2015, streamed albums were counted towards the Official Album Charts.

2013 – Daft Punk’s Get Lucky sells a million copies in just 69 days, and the first track to be streamed one million times in a single week.


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